DFD for Hotel Management System – Data Flow Diagram

The DFD for Hotel Management System is a over all flow of how the data moves through a system, describing its inputs and outputs process within the entire system.

Furthermore, the data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the system data process management structure. In the case of the Hotel Management System you can edit this template based on your needs.

The DFD has three main levels:

  • Context Diagram (Level 0 DFD)
  • Level 1 DFD
  • Level 2 DFD

These levels are responsible for discussing the overall system processes from general to specific.

Context Diagram for Hotel Management System

The first level in discussing the system’s data flow diagram is the context diagram. This level shows the system’s core function in a one-line process.


Hotel Management System Level 0
Context Diagram for Hotel Management System

The example context diagram gives the general scenario when managing a hotel. Its concept is to reveal the general process, external entities (users), and data flow.

In the hotel management process, we have the following external entities:

  • Hotel Administrator
  • Employee
  • Customer

These entities will be the main source of data inputs and recipients of data outputs. Remember: This context diagram originated from the common idea of hotel management. Its context can be changed or modified to produce a new and unique project.

Level 1 DFD for Hotel Management System

To expand the idea of the context diagram, DFD level 1 is the answer. The DFD level 1 is the expanded view of the former level which highlights its sub-processes.

Hotel Management System Level 1
Level 1 DFD for Hotel Management System

This example diagram shows 4 of the sub-processes from the context diagram:

  • Customer Information Management – is an information system where the customer’s data is validated and used as a basis for other processes just like a reservation.
  • Assigning Rooms and Facilities – this process may vary according to the request of certain customers. Its assignments are based on the orders of clients and guests (customers).
  • Reservation Management – are available in the system and are offered to customers online. This business process is one of the core functions of the project.
  • Employees Management – is the process used by the admin to designate their employees in different departments. This process gathers the employee information and monitors their workloads and performances.

These sub-processes show various data processing.

Level 2 DFD for Hotel Management System

While the former levels focus on processes, DFD level 2 gives more attention to the other aspects of the project. Example:

Hotel Management System Level 2
Level 2 DFD for Hotel Management System

This level shows more emphasis on the system’s databases (data stores). The databases are as follows:

  • Customer
  • Reservation
  • Employees
  • Facilities or Rooms

The processed inputs are stored in these databases and are used to produce outputs.

You may learn more about the system’s databases through the ER Diagram for Hotel Management System.


The explanation of the mentioned DFD levels varies depending on the requirements of your project or the desires of your clients. However, the explanation is acceptable as long as it clarifies the system’s main function, sub-processes, and databases.

For the DFD level 0 (context diagram), it should focus on the main process of the system.

The DFD level 1 must elaborate more on the main process’ sub-processes.

DFD level 2 is the project’s highest extraction which means it is the most detailed diagram among the three. But this level only specifies a part of the system or a sub-process from DFD level 1. When you need to specify all aspects of your project, DFD level 2 can be in multiple diagrams.


In conclusion, we have discussed the role of the drawing data flow diagram (DFD) levels 0, 1, and 2 for the hotel management system. There’s no least or greatest among the three levels but their functions complement to deliver the overall flow of data within the system DFD.


If you have inquiries or suggestions about DFD for Hotel Management System, just leave us your comments below. We would be glad to hear to concerns and suggestions and be part of your learning.

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