DFD for Hospital Management System – Data Flow Diagram

The DFD for Hospital Management System is a representation of the overall flow of data related to all departments of healthcare such as medical, financial, and laboratories.

Its overall flow can be described using a data flow diagram (DFD).

This DFD Diagram for the hospital management system uses defined symbols that present the system’s processes.

These symbols are the following:

Data Flow Diagram Symbols
Data Flow Diagram Symbols
  • External Entities are the entry and exit points for data entering and leaving the system. Entities are referred to as terminators, sources, sinks, and actors.
  • The process is the portion of DFD that modifies and generates output from data.
  • A Data Store (database) is a table that stores the files or repositories for future use.
  • Data Flow is the flow of data between external entities, processes, and data stores.

Hospital Management System Context Diagram

The context diagram (DFD level 0) shows the system’s overall function in a single process. It is used to pinpoint the very purpose of the hospital management system.

Hospital Management System Level 0
Hospital Management System Context Diagram

The sample context diagram highlights the main process which is hospital management.

To invoke the main function, the users (external entities) will provide inputs. Its external entities were the admin, patient, and employee (doctors & nurses).

The flow of data then starts as soon as the input is present. The following diagrams will expound on the idea of the hospital system’s context diagram.

1st Level DFD for Hospital Management System

1st level of the (DFD) data flow diagram shows more emphasis on the concept of a context diagram. This level is considered the expanded version of the previous diagram.

DFD level 1 example:

1st Level DFD for Hospital Management System

This example shows the sub-processes of hospital management. These sub-processes comprise the important functions of the system which complete the whole project.

Hospital Management System Sub-processes:

  • Patient Management
  • Assigning Room or Facility
  • Assigning Medicine
  • Employee (Doctor and Nurses) Management

These processes specify the paths (flows) of data that may enter and exit the system.


The data inputs and outputs as well as the system’s sub-processes are based on the basic concept of hospital management.

Each of these can be changed depending on your project needs. In some projects, DFD levels 0 and 1 are enough to explain the system function.

However, if your project needs more explanation or emphasis, you may include the DFD level 2.

2nd Level DFD for Hospital Management System

DFD level 2 is the highest abstraction among the data flow diagram levels. It focuses more on discussing the processes of the specific sub-process in the DFD level 1.

In short, this level provides a specific explanation of the specific sub-process.

However, the example diagram below does not contain an illustration of the former level’s concept.

Instead, it highlights the system’s databases in the form of a data store. Know more about the system’s database in Hospital Management System Database Design.

2nd Level DFD for Hospital Management System

In this example, the databases of the hospital management system are as follows:

  • Patient Database
  • Medicines Database
  • Employee Database

Each of these databases (data store) becomes the storage of data that comes in and the source of data that comes out.


An input containing the “patient’s information” is passed to the “manage patient” process. During the process, the input will have some changes depending on the “patient’s diagnosis” and “medication” (doctor’s input).

The processed data is then stored in the “patient database”. As a result, the database will produce the “bill information” output for patients.

Remember: The 2nd level of DFD may come in multiple diagrams depending on the sub-processes that you need to specify.

Note: The given examples are based on the general view of the hospital management system. Its ideas can be modified or exchanged to meet the requirements of your project.


The DFD (data flow diagram) for the hospital management system project is the visualization of data and business processing.

Each of its levels was defined and discussed for the benefit of understanding the role of DFD levels 0, 1, and 2.


If you have inquiries or suggestions about DFD for the Hospital Management System, just leave us your comments below. We would be glad to hear to concerns and suggestions and be part of your learning.

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