DFD for Student Management System – Data Flow Diagram

The DFD for Student Management System is an overall flow of how the data moves through a system, describing its inputs and outputs processes.

In addition, the data flow diagram for the Student Management System uses symbols to draw the student management system DFD levels.

Data Flow Diagram Symbols
Data Flow Diagram Symbols (Notation)

Details of Student Management System Data Flow Diagram

ProcessThe Process section of the DFD alters data and creates output. In addition, it does calculations, sorts data based on logic, and controls data flow according to corporate requirements.
External EntityExternal entities are the source and destination of information from the system and interact with it. An example of an external entity is a third-party company or person, a computer system, or a business system. People use the words terminators, sources, links, and actors to determine entities.
Data StoreA database table or a membership application are examples of files or repositories that store data for later use. Moreover, this component must be properly labeled.
Data flowData flow is the flow of data between external entities, processes, and data repositories. It illustrates the relationship between the other components. Additionally, a labeled arrow is utilized to demonstrate data flow.
Data Flow Diagram Symbols

0 Level DFD for Student Management System

Level 0 of the student management system DFD is also known as the context diagram.

It shows the overall concept of the project in a single process. Therefore, by just looking into this level, you will understand the main function of a student management system.

Student Management System Level 0
Student Management System DFD Level 0

The external entities of the system are also highlighted in DFD level 0. For the student management system, the external entities are the “students” and the “faculty”.

These entities will be the source of inputs and receive outputs.

At this level, the general data flow was also shown in the form of an arrow with a label. The flow of data directs to where the arrowhead points.

1 Level DFD for Student Management System

To elaborate more on the context diagram, the 1st level in DFD is applied. DFD level 1 gives more specificity to the idea given in DFD level 0.

Therefore, DFD level 1 is the expanded version of the context diagram.

Student Management System Level 1
Student Management System DFD Level 1

This level reveals the sub-processes of the student management (0.0) process. However, this diagram only highlighted more on the external entities of the main process. This includes:

  • Subjects
  • Faculties
  • Class Schedules
  • Students
  • Time Tables
  • Semester
  • Attendance

Therefore, the system DFD level 1 implies that the student management system is the central process. Its external entities are specified to know the flow of data and its processes.

In contrast, this level can be subject to modification if you want to expand a more detailed diagram. Just make sure to provide the necessary information and processes to justify your concept.

The student management system project processes may vary depending on the needs of its users. Nevertheless, the purpose of level 1 is to discuss more on DFD level 0.

2 Level DFD for Student Management System

The 2nd level of the data flow diagram (DFD) is the last but not the least. This is the highest level among the three and is more detailed.

Student Management System Level 2
Student Management System DFD Level 2

DFD level 2 gives more information about the student management processes. The processes specified include the following:

  • Assign Attendance
  • Assign Schedules
  • Assign Subjects
  • Assigning Semester

For instance, the mentioned processes are included in the scope of the student management system.

Assigning attendance is the process that the instructors apply during class.

Assigning schedules is the process of scheduling classes for students and professors. This process is next to assigning subjects.

Assign subjects come after processing the student’s primary transaction such as enrollment.

Assigning semester is automatically processed by the system that is based on the school’s academic year. This is the system’s next process after the student’s information is provided.

The included processes were all part of the main process “student management”.

Note: The last level (DFD level 2) is not required all the time. It is only necessary when there’s a need to discuss more of the included sub-processes.

Student Management System Data Flow Diagram Pdf


The data flow diagram DFD for the student information system is an overview of the data flow that may come in and out of the system.

It provides the directions of data flow, details of its source, and how they were processed.


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